Ad Words (Pay Per Click)

Q. What is the qualification for Digital Marketing?

Answer: To take up any digital marketing certificate or course, you need to have completed your graduation (10+2+3) or equivalent from an educational institution, recognized by the respective universities.

Q. Why should small business use Digital marketing?

Answer: Digital marketing is a best way for small businesses to grow up to a large business. In today's world digital marketing is a tool that helps a small business or start-up grow without the massive tools, and manpower that a large company possesses.

Q. What is the pay-per-click ?

Answer: A business model whereby as company that has placed  the advertisement on a website pays a sum of money to the host website when a users clicks on to the advertisement.

Is called 'click fraud' is an increasing problem as pay-per-click advertising continues to growing

What is the meaning of pay-per-click?

Answer: Pay-per-click (PPC) is an the online to advertising model in to which an advertiser to pays an publisher every time to advertisement link is the “clicked” on the. Alternatively, PPC is  known as the cost-per-click (CPC) model in The pay-per-click model is an the offered primarily in by search engines (e.g., Google) and social to the networks

How does pay-per-click work?

Answer: PPC stands for pay-per-click, as model of the internet to marketing in the which advertisers in pay a fee each time one of their ads is clicked. Essentially to it's an way of the buying an visits to your site, rather to than the attempting to the “earn” those visits an the organically. Search engine advertising is one of the most to popular to forms of pay per click

Here are the just seven powerful  to benefits of using PPC.

  • PPC in Contributes to Business Goals. This is often to the most compelling reason to use PPC advertising. ..
  • PPC Is the Measurable and Trackable. .
  • Quick to Entry. ..
  • You're in to Control. ..
  • PPC in Works Well With in the Other Marketing Channels. ..
  • Incredible to the Targeting Options. ..
  • A Wealth of the Marketing Data.

    Advantages and disadvantages of pay-per-click advertising


    Pay-per-click (PPC) advertising to can be a cost effective on way to drive traffic to the  your website. There are the number of benefits and challenges to consider.

    Advantages of pay-per-click advertising

    The benefits of running PPC advertising include:

    • Cost effective – because you only to pay when a user actually reaches your website, it can be the good value for the money. You can choose to the spend as much or as little as you like.
    • Targeted - you can to  choose your audience the according to demographics like location, an language and the device
    • Measurable – PPC to campaigns can be to set up to carefully measure effectiveness. You can be determine exactly how much to your return on investment is.
    • Customisable - as you run your campaigns, you can to make many small adjustments to the improve in based on what works best.
    • Training resources – there is are many (often free) online an courses and training materials to be help you develop to your to skills.
    • Fast - you will see the impact for your PPC to the immediately. Organic to the search engine optimisation (SEO) tactics can take months to make a differences.

    Disadvantages of pay-per-click advertising

    Some of to the challenges of PPC advertising to include:

    • Time investment - you can't just set up to your PPC campaigns and leave them. You need to the invest time into to optimising and improving the get the best results.
    • Skills required - it can take some practise to set up effective to campaigns. Many businesses to choose to use a specialist agency.
    • Costs can quickly add up - if you aren't monitoring and optimising to your campaigns to make sure you to get a return an investment to money could be wasted. You will need to allocate the budget for PPC campaigns, unlike to SEO tactics where the investment is time & skills.
    • Clicks and visits don't always lead to sales - you will need to convince the users to 'convert' to once they are reach your website.




Q. What is better SEO or SEM?

Answer: With SEO it can take weeks, months or even years, before your business begins to rank on the first page of our search engines and this is why SEM is better for testing than SEO.Because you can immediately turn SEM paid ads off and on and run your business, it's a great strategy for testing

Q. What is social media marketing?

What is SMM?

Social media marketing is the use of social media platform and websites to promote our product or service. Although the term e-marketing and digital marketing are still dominant  in academia, social media marketing is becoming more popular researchers. Most social media platforms have built-in data analytics tools, enabling companies to track the progress and engagement of ad companies. Companies address a range of stakeholders through social media marketing, including current and potential customers  potential employees, journalists, bloggers, and the general public. On a strategic level, social media marketing includes the management of a marketing campaign, governance and setting their own scope in their own field of knowledge.

Different Types of Social Media Marketing

  • Content marketing
  • Advertising
  • Influence marketing.
  • Social media management
  • Paid media.
  • Build your following.
  • Contributing to forums.
  • Reviews


Content marketing is a marketing strategy used to attract and retain an audience by creating and sharing relevant videos, podcasts, and other media. This approach establishes the companies to promotes their brand awareness, and keeps your business top of mind when it's time to buy what you sell and when to buy their goods.


Advertising mainly is a means of communication with the users of a product or service. Advertisements are messages paid for by those people who send them and are intended to influence people who receive them. It is mainly knowing about people brands or business through ads.


the influence marketing was limited only to celebrities and a few dedicated bloggers. Now, it seems like we’ve seen social media influences rise and even get caught up in fraud.

 influence marketing is a type of social media marketing that uses product mentions from influences–individuals who have a dedicated social following and are viewed as experts. Influence marketing works because of the high amount of trust that social influences have built up with their recommendations from them serve as a form of social proof  to their brand’s to  potential customers.


Social media marketing is the use of social media and websites to promote your  product or service. Social media marketing is becoming more popular for both customers and researchers. Most social media platforms have enabling companies to track the progress, success, and engagement of ad campaigns. Companies address a range of stakeholders through social media marketing and potential employees, journalists and the general public. On a strategic level, social media marketing includes the management of a marketing, governance, setting the scope.


Paid media is one method by which organizations can promote their content through sponsored social media posts, display ads, paid search results, video ads and other promoted multimedia. Paid media can be an effective opportunity to expand your brand reach, to get more clicks, and generate more traffic. Ultimately sponsoring content, you're able to reach audiences that might not have come across you otherwise it could be more difficult to us. 


You can build your own website and promote it using all social media platforms. So, the people can know about your sites and it will help you to grow your own company with help of your friends and social media platforms. You can even run ads and promote your website through fb, Instagram, twitter, YouTube etc.


A forum is an online discussion board where people share their experiences, and discuss topics of mutual interest. Forums is excellent way to create social connections and make a sense of community. They can also help you to cultivate an interest group about a particular subject and share your thoughts and known others opinion too.

One of the many benefits of having a forum is that it always an interactive space where members can share constructive criticism. When brands openly give their customers a voice and show that they're not afraid of criticism, people will be far more likely to trust them and build a good relationship with them.


To examine or study again especially reexamine judicially look back on take a retrospective view of review the past to go over or examine deliberately reviewed the results of the study.to give a critical evaluation of review.


Q. Is Digital Marketing is good career?

Answer: Digital marketing is the right career choice for all the freshers. There is massive growth in how digital marketing have grown over the years and are expected to take the lion's share of marketing budgets in 2020. This which creates enormous job opportunities.

Q. Traditional Marketing v/s Digital Marketing?

Traditional Marketing: It is the old way of marketing Technique And It refers kind of promotion, includes flyers, TV ads, radio ads, print advertisements, newspaper ads, etc. in which companies are used in the early period to market their products and build their own company. The phases of Traditional Marketing are Interest, Awareness, and Decision.
Digital Marketing: It is modern way of marketing Technique.we are promoting, selling products and services by online marketing. It also refers to the Marketing of any kind of business through digital media and devices such as Google, Youtube, Facebook, Instagram ..etc.
The phases of Digital Marketing are Planning, Conversation and Content.


Computer Training Institute Blog

Computer Training Institute Blog


The real animation work begins

Animation in the What is the first thing that comes to your mind when you hear or read the word "Animation"? In short most of you may be knowing it as Cartoons. Yes, it is the same. Do you remember that in the earlier days most of us as kids used to read comics or cartoons, if yes then your childhood was amazing? They are all known as 2d animation. Later on, 2d animation (static, comic books) turned to 3d animation (dynamic, shown on TV, Smartphones, Computers, etc). Now for those who are eager to know how these characters, objects move like us in real life & how can they speak? The answer is 3d animation uses various types of software & there are voice actors who give a voice to a character. If we talk about the time around 2000-2010, Dragon Ball-Z, Pokémon, Beyblade, Tom & Jerry, Ben-10, Scooby Doo where are you, Mickey Mouse, etc., were shown on TV mostly on Cartoon Network. Most of us in today’s time prefer 3d animation rather than 2d animation because of the action scenes & the quality of it. Never forget that 3d animation is made from 2d animation if the storyline of the comic book is interesting & the item is getting sold to the public at a faster speed. Giving life to a character or an object is all about 3d animation.  With more & more new cartoon series coming up, the names of the cartoon channels (TV) expanded as time went on. Kids & teenagers mostly watch, enjoy & love it. Animation will remain the same & will not end completely, is the conclusion.


Two-dimensional animation, very popularly known as 2D animation, is distinguished by the creation of objects and characters in a two-dimensional space. 2D animation just has width and height, in other words.

2D animation is one of the most common types of animation. For making animated films, cartoons, marketing videos, advertising, business presentations, educational materials, video games, it is commonly used.

More businesses are considering employing animated films to promote their products, as they raise conversion rates by 20%, with the advent of video content. Some corporations pay animation teams, while others use video creation tools to create them online.


Three-dimensional animation, in short it is called 3D animation or computer animation. The characters or objects can do any kind of work like in the real world or even those things or works can be done that are not possible to do in the real world, such as a character can survive in outer space without a space suit without any problem. Even before a surrounding or an environment is made in the real world, 3D animation will show how it's going to be.

The software that are used for making 3D animation are: Autodesk 3ds Max, Maya, MotionBuilder, Cinema 4D, Lightwave 3D etc. Adobe Animate is best for a beginner, Powtoon is user-friendly, Blender is best for professionals.

The websites for making 3D animation are: Go Animate, Biteable, Animiz, Renderforest, Mixamo etc.

Auto desk 3ds Max

Auto desk 3ds Max 2022 is an advanced software for animation, 3D Modelling and rendering software. For professionals in the game and film industry, the software is very suitable. Furthermore, the software offers many tools to improve your designs significantly.

It uplifts the project or company on three levels. To start with, 3D animation and dynamics. For instance, the 3ds Max Fluid tool enables the user to create realistic behavior of liquids. In addition, it is easy to animate imported simulation data. Furthermore, the user can create impressive particle flow effects like fire, water, spray and snow. Motion Paths, general animation tools and rigging tools, are the other animation tools.

To continue with, it enables the user to produce powerful 3D renders. The user can use tools to create amazing VR visualizations. The user can simulate camera settings, by using the physical camera tool. In addition, the user can create detailed views of architectural scenes with the Auto desk Ray tracer Render and benefit from the improved Active Shade rendering.

Last but not least, it offers a wide range of tools to produce 3D models. Based on Fusion 360, use spline tools or create wood texture. For mesh and surface modelling, use the tools that are required.

To conclude with, it is easy to use. The reason is of its asset library, its smart asset packaging, its modern user interface, its modern workspace and its improved pipeline tools integration.

Auto desk Maya

Auto desk Maya is powerful software that enables 3D animation, modelling, simulation, rendering, and more. Many consider it the industry standard for animation, because it is strong and versatile. Moving Picture Company, Blue Sky Studios & Frame store are many well-known feature film studios that use Maya. The actual fact is, the software has been used to animate award-winning movies such as “Frozen” and “Wreck It Ralph.”

With the help of Maya, the user can create 3D assets for film, TV, and video games. Creating 3D models, character rigging, animation, dynamics, painting, lighting, and rendering, are typically that involves a few different components of artistry. It includes easy-to-use tools & intuitive ways to simplify all of these tasks. Maya works on 3D Animation, Dynamics & Special Effects, 3D Modelling, 3D Rendering & Shading, Importing & Exporting.


VFX (Virtual Effects), is a technology that is used to create videos by combining the video clips and action shots. Through computer graphics, they are created virtually because they cannot be created in the films physically, so it is used in video production and film making.

It uses Computer-Generated Imagery (CGI) , which is an application of computer graphics. CGI has recently become accessible to independent filmmakers where they can easily use compositing software (which is a technique to combine visual images from different sources into a single image) and animation. In today’s time VFX is mostly used in Film making. Special Effects and Motion Capture are also few of the techniques used in VFX.

Graphic Design

What is the job of a Graphic Designer?

The job of a graphic designer is to understand the material that they are trying to communicate, it can be the nature of the company or the content of a book, newspapers, magazines etc, to make it appropriate and unique design of the material. Designing forms or websites for a company is also considered as graphic design. Graphic design is to plan, arrange and create the visual content to share & exchange messages and ideas of a project.

The elements that graphic designers use are: colors, images, typography, shapes and other elements so that they can easily communicate with the audience.

In Graphic Design Training Course in Bangalore,  you will learn the essentials of Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe In Design, Corel Draw, Learn from experts with 100% Place Assistance, at Best Graphic Design Training Institute in Bangalore

Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is used for raster image editing, graphic design, and digital art software that is widely used. It utilises layering to add depth and versatility to the design and editing process, as well as strong editing tools that, when used together, can accomplish almost anything.. Learn best essentials of Digital Painting , Matte Painting in our online Photoshop course in Bangalore

Adobe In Design

Adobe In Design is a page layout designing software application & desktop publishing produced by Adobe Inc. For creating such as posters, flyers, brochures, magazines, newspapers, presentations, books and eBooks, are the works that can be used. For publishing content suitable for tablet devices in conjunction with Adobe Digital Publishing Suite. Production artists & graphic designers are the principal users, creating and laying out periodical publications, posters, and print media. It also supports export to EPUB (It includes HTML files, images, CSS style sheets, and other assets. It also contains metadata.) and SWF (It is an Adobe Flash file format used for multimedia, vector graphics and Action Script.) formats to create digital publications & e-books, that includes content suitable for consumption on tablet computers & digital magazines. XML, style sheets, and other coding markup, that gives support for making it suitable for exporting tagged text content for use in other digital and online formats. Use In Design to create a variety of digital and printed material such as stationery, resumes, pamphlets, annual reports, catalogues, interactive digital publications, EPUBs, books, magazines, and more.

Adobe Illustrator

Adobe Illustrator is a design program & a vector graphic editor that is developed and marketed by Adobe Inc. Originally, it was designed for the Apple Macintosh, development of Adobe Illustrator began in 1985. Illustrator CC was released, along with Creative Cloud (Adobe's shift to monthly or annual subscription service delivered over the Internet). On October 26, 2021, the latest version was released, that is, Illustrator 2022 and is the 25th generation in the product line. In the year 2018, it was reviewed as the best vector graphics editing program, by PC Magazine.

Versions 1–1.6 (Illustrator 88): It started in 1985.

Versions 2–6: (2) It started in the year 1990, (6) was developed after 1993.

Versions 7–10: (7) It started in the year 1997, (10) was developed in the year 2001.

Versions CS–CS6: (CS) started in the year 2003, (CS6) was developed in the year 2012.

Version CC is the latest version.

Corel DRAW

Corel DRAW is a vector graphics editor promoted & developed by Corel Corporation. The name of the Corel graphics suite also includes the bitmap-image editor Corel Photo-Paint as well as other graphics-related programs. The latest version was released in March, 2021, that is marketed as CorelDraw Graphics Suite 2021 (equivalent to version 23). The design is done to edit two-dimensional images such as logos and posters and it is available for Windows and macOS.

Motion Graphics

What is Motion graphics?

Motion graphics, also called mograph, are the pieces of digital footage & animation which create the illusion of motion or rotation, and are usually combined with audio for use in multimedia projects. It is usually displayed via electronic media technology, but may also be displayed via manual powered technology (e.g. thaumatrope, phenakistoscope, stroboscope, zoetrope, praxinoscope, flip book).  The term itself refers to a typical & more explicitly as the commercial application of animation and effects to video, film, TV, and interactive applications. 

Adobe Premiere

Adobe Premiere, developed by Adobe Systems, was a former video editing software. In the year 1991, it was first launched and its final version was released in 2002. Introduced in the year 2003, it was replaced by Adobe Premiere Pro, a rewritten version of Adobe Premiere.

Adobe After Effects

Adobe After Effects is a compositing application, digital visual effects, motion graphics, that is developed by Adobe Systems and used in the post-production process of film making, video games and television production. After Effects can be used for keying, tracking, compositing, and animation, compared to others. The functioning of it is a very basic non-linear editor, audio editor, and media transcoder. In the year of 2019, the program won an Academy Award for scientific and technical achievement.

After Effects Plug-ins written in C & C++

After Effects Scripts written in JS & Extend Script

After Effects Extensions HTML, NodeJS without the need of C++.

Edge Animate cc

Adobe Edge Animate, earlier known as Adobe Edge, is a web development tool developed by Adobe Systems that uses HTML5, JavaScript, and CSS3 functionality.  Later, it became a part of the Adobe Edge suite, and was available as a free 30-day trial download from Adobe Creative Cloud. As of November 2015, it is no longer being actively developed.



Cinematography is an art and craft that involves capturing a story optically in order to create motion images. Cinematography, on the other hand, is the art and science of recording light either electronically or chemically onto film.

The design of visuals we see on screen is known as cinematography. The continuous series of photos that constitute a single narrative is known as cinematography. Each shot is composed by cinematographer, who considers where everything in the frame commands attention.


The word Multimedia is formed by combining the words multi and media. "Many" is the meaning of the word "multi." Multimedia is a term that facilitates the transport of information from one location to another.

The presentation of text, pictures, audio, and video with links and tools that allow the user to navigate, participate, create, and communicate using a computer is known as multimedia.

Text, drawings, still and moving images, graphics, audio, animation, and any other media in which various information can be produced, saved, conveyed, and processed digitally is referred to as multimedia.

What is Animation Course?


Even a professional must complete the entire course of animation if he/she wants to learn the subject. The person can also fix their own time. The person can come to 3d if he/she knows complete 2d (drawings, sketching's). Few of them could also start their own business if they have a good creativity. 


As a student, learning animation is not difficult but it is a vast course, to complete it it will take 3 years. If a student knows complete 2d (drawings, sketchings), then that student can skip 2d and come to 3d. 3d will include giving the best quality effect, sound effects using the best software, & for making 3d animation there are many websites to create or design a cartoon character.


To get into a job, there are companies that still give an opportunity for freshers. If a person has a plan of making a cartoon series with a team in the company, it will be a huge lift up to the company itself. But the key is that the audience must feel amazed by it. That is the profit, name & fame that the company will receive. 

Digital marketing


  • Firstly, digital marketing is the technique of advertising products/services through digital devices, and technology is known as digital marketing.
  • To know it another way, digital marketing is a method of marketing that takes place online using electronic devices.
  • Digital marketing, known as online marketing, is a method of promoting businesses and connecting with customers via the use of various forms of social media.
  • Every online commercial that we watch, every piece of information we read, and every graphics we see online reflects the efforts of a digital marketer.


When we compare traditional marketing with digital marketing, digital marketing has a higher scope. As days go on people rely on the internet.


In this digital marketing course, a person will learn everything related to digital marketing strategies and how they can be applied to live marketing scenarios. By end of the course, a person will be able to do achieve the following


  1.   Getting a Job in a Digital Marketing with a firm grip
  2.   Earn Money from Affiliate Marketing
  3.   Work from Home as Freelancer 
  4.   Promotion for new products & services
  5.   Target Customers
  6.   Retaining Old customers
  7.   Increase Sales/Profit
  8.   Expand Market
  9.   More Website Traffic

10.Improve User Experience


  1. A fresher who wants to have a great career in digital marketing.
  2. Existing working professional who wants to shift to digital marketing.
  3. Business owners who want to advance their business.
  4. Anyone who wants to earn money using social media.

What is SEO ?

Search Engine Optimization (SEO):

In brief, Search Engine Optimization [SEO] is the process of improving a website's exposure when the public searches for a business's product or service on Google or any other search engine.If a page is more transparent in search results, it is more likely that new customers, as well as existing customers, will be drawn to the business. The word "Search engine optimization" is the action of increasing a website's ranking in search engine results. A person working on SEO should employ an organic search engine optimization strategy to study, examine, and optimise websites first. To have higher website traffic, one must provide content that contains significant keywords. The search engine algorithm will always be getting updated daily, and SEO constantly keeps changing. so, one must keep up with the current trends and information surrounding search engine modernization frequently. 

  1. Search Engine Marketing (SEM):

As the term suggests, search engine marketing is in the search engine (google), to promote a website can increase its visibility and to get a higher ranking, to be in the top position at SEO, which is a company’s or a business (market) aim. SEM includes 2 search results, one is paid search results (using GoogleAdwords or Bing Ads, known as Microsoft adCenter) and the other is organic search results (SEO).

What is PPC ?

Pay Per Click (PPC):

Pay-per-click, very popularly known as PPC, is a process of online marketing where advertisers pay a certain amount whenever one of their ads is clicked. In simple words, it’s a way of 'buying’ internet views in addition to driving organic traffic to your site. PPC allows advertisers to pay for ads placed in a search engine's fund links, search engine ads are one of the most popular PPC strategies. This strategy works when a person searches for a keyword related to their business.

What is Social Media Marketing ?

What is SMM ?

Social Media Marketing (SMM):

The use of social media platforms to capture the audience to promote our brand, improve sales, and drive website traffic is popularly called social media marketing. This involves creating content for social media profiles, listening to and connecting with your followers, checking our outcomes, and executing social media ads. All social media (Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, etc) are all part of digital marketing. Its digital media marketers' duties are to develop a social media strategy, create content that is correct for each post and that content, and track important metrics such as reach, impressions, and follower engagement relating to the post.

What is Content marketing ?

Content marketing is the approach which involves developing and sharing relevant articles, videos, podcasts, and other material to fascinate, engage, and keep an audience. This method creates expertise, raises brand recognition, and keeps the company at the forefront of people's minds when they need to purchase our products. Content creation is a very important aspect of digital marketing. The way of doing content for an internet platform (mostly for a website) is popularly referred to as content marketing. This can be achieved through the creation of blog posts, videos, email newsletters, and social media material, among other things.The first purpose of content marketing is to develop valuable material through required channels to retain and attract customers and also increase website traffic. As a content marketer, a person will be responsible for a variety of activities, including blog management, drip campaign building, copywriting, and video production. 

What is Affiliate marketing ?

Affiliate marketing is one of the advertising approaches in which a firm pays others (example: bloggers) to encourage and sell its products/services. Affiliates use their website, app, or blog to display advertisements or publish and sell their products or services.


What are Google analytics?

The very common free tool for examining website traffic is Google Analytics. As it offers a lot of details that organisations can use to know how well their website is operating, allowing them to build a well-organised digital marketing strategy and adjust methods as needed to obtain higher results.

What is Google Ad sense?

Google AdSense is one of the firms very popularly known goods and services worldwide. Google AdSense is the best that allows all marketers, advertisers, publishers, developers, business firms, and brands in the Google Network of content sites to convey aimed text, picture, video, and interactive media adverts.


  • An individual will master and get success in learning the technique of conveying stories through content writing. 
  • An individual will excel in generating the content, videos, blogs, and running email campaigns using simple tools.
  • It measures the significance of all digital efforts and provides required data using Google Analytics, giving you the trust and experience you need to tackle this competitive marketing landscape.

By the conclusion of this training, an individual will have a portfolio that is created during the course, as well as a live project. This is one of the types of things a potential employer or customer wants to see. An individual will be able to share the lessons that are learned, the errors made during the learning process, and the backstory of your achievement.


Job oriented digital marketing course will make a person ready for a job in a digital marketing firm. Digital marketing is successful in offering career advice and job opportunities. Moreover, it is useful for career seekers. It helps you to get occupations that are in demand and make contacts.


As a student, it will be a good head start in this field. It will be a perfect learning experience so that in the future, a student can decide whether to work or do business. It's not easy nor difficult, but the real thing is that it is time consuming when a complete website has to be developed (it may take years).


For today's generation, it’s the dream to start their business venture. With a digital marketing course, an entrepreneur will learn to implement digital marketing tactics in business needs. This helps the firm to target the right audience in social media which increases the graph of business.

Computer Basics Course

What is a computer?

An electronic device is called a computer.

The fundamental of a computer is 


Generations of computers

In the first generation (1945-1956) - Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC), UNIVersal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC).

In the second generation (1956-1963) - Transistors, Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL), FORmula TRANslator (FORTRAN).

In the third generation (1964-1971) – Semiconductors, Integrated Circuit (IC).

In the fourth generation (1971-present) - Microprocessor, Large Scale Integration (LSI), Very Large-Scale Integration (VLSI), Ultra-Large-Scale Integration (ULSI).

In the fifth generation (present & beyond) - Supercomputers.

What is a motherboard?

The motherboard is the backbone that ties the pieces of the computer such as CPU, GPU, Hard Drive to interact with each other.

Applications of computers

Computers are used in: Education, Industry, Communication, Business, Entertainment & Media, Science & Engineering.

Classification of a computer

Microcomputers - Microcomputers are also called Personal Computers (PC).

Minicomputers - Minicomputers is a multi-user computer that has a connection of more than one CPU.

Mainframe computer - Mainframe computer is a multi-user, multiprogramming, high-performance, where more than 100 users can access the computer at a time.

Supercomputers - Supercomputers are fast, powerful but expensive, the storage capacity is huge. It is called parallel processing or multiple processing.

Memory of a computer

Primary memory: Random Access Memory (RAM) is a volatile memory, Read Only Memory (ROM) is a non-volatile memory.

Secondary memory: Universal Serial Bus (USB), Compact Disk (CD), Digital Video Disk (DVD), Hard Disk.

Input devices are: Keyboard, Mouse, Joystick, Light pen, Scanner.

Process (CPU): Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU), Control Unit (CU), Registers.

Output devices are: Monitor, Printer, Speakers.

WWW - World Wide Web is to retrieve information from the internet.

Internet - Internet is a global computer network that provides information throughout the world that contains interconnected networks of interconnected computers using communication protocols.

Windows: Windows (Wide Interactive Network Development for Office Work Solution) is an operating system that was developed by Microsoft.

Windows 7 was initially released in the year 2009, on October 22. 

Windows 8 was initially released in the year 2012, on October 26.

Windows 10 was initially released in the year 2015, on July 29.


MS Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint)

MS Word is for documentation & designing the page. Inserting or pasting an image is possible. Making a table, giving borders, changing the colour & the size of the text.

MS Excel is for maintaining a record (contains information or values) & performing various tasks by using the formulas to calculate.

MS PowerPoint is for changing & designing the slides. Adding or removing texts or images. Animation is available here (how the next slide must appear).


Advanced Excel Course

Advanced Excel provides a good insight into the latest & advanced features that are available in MS Excel 2013. In a step-by-step manner it explains how to use a particular feature. To look impressive, Advanced Excel users know how to gather, structure & present their data. A good understanding is necessary to make awesome Excel workbooks, such as, the features like Power Query (Get & Transform Data), Tables, cell styles, formatting options.

The features are:

Format Charts, Chart Design, Leader Lines, New Functions.

The fundamental Data Analytics are:

Slicers, Flash Fill.

Powerful Data Analytics - 1 are:

Data Model, Power Pivot, Pivot Table Tools.

Powerful Data Analytics - 2 are: 

Power View, Visualisations, Pie Charts, Additional features, Power View Services, Format Reports, Handling Integers.

Other features are: 

Templates, File Formats, Inquire, Workbook Analysis, Manage passwords.

Advanced Excel Course

Advanced Excel provides a good insight into the latest & advanced features that are available in MS Excel 2013. In a step-by-step manner it explains how to use a particular feature. To look impressive, Advanced Excel users know how to gather, structure & present their data. A good understanding is necessary to make awesome Excel workbooks, such as, the features like Power Query (Get & Transform Data), Tables, cell styles, formatting options.

The features are:

Format Charts, Chart Design, Leader Lines, New Functions.

The fundamental Data Analytics are:

Slicers, Flash Fill.

Powerful Data Analytics - 1 are:

Data Model, Power Pivot, Pivot Table Tools.

Powerful Data Analytics - 2 are: 

Power View, Visualisations, Pie Charts, Additional features, Power View Services, Format Reports, Handling Integers.

Other features are: 

Templates, File Formats, Inquire, Workbook Analysis, Manage passwords.

Software training Course

What are the things that come under software training?

Programming languages, Web Designing, .Net technologies, Java, Selenium and Software Testing.

What are the programming languages that a beginner should learn?

C: C is the FIRST & Mother of all Programming languages. If you want to learn the next level and more about other Programming and Coding languages, Start with C.

C++: C++ is based on the traditional C language and includes Data Structures and Object-oriented Programming Language. It is mostly used in developing Games.

Variables & Constants in C & C++

-   A variable is a name that is given to a location in the memory of a computer. During program execution, the value stored in the variable can be changed.

-   A constant is the values that are fixed & cannot change during the execution of a program.

 Operators used in C & C++.

  Arithmetic operator: + (add), - (subtract), * (multiply), / (divide).

  Relational operator: < (lesser than), > (greater than), <= (lesser than equal to), >= (greater than equal to), == (equal to), != (not equal to).

  Logical operator: && (logical AND), || (logical OR), ! (logical NOT).

  Bitwise operator: & (bitwise AND), | (bitwise OR), << (bitwise shift left), >> (bitwise shift right).

  Assignment operator: += (addition assignment), -= (subtraction assignment), *= (multiplication assignment), /= (division assignment).

 Data types in C & C++ are:


-   Int, Float, Char, Double, Void, Bool.


-   Array, Function, Pointer, Reference.


-   Structure, Union, Class, Enumerated, Typedef.


  Integer: Integer (int) holds 2 bytes of variable memory. -32768 to 32767 is the range.

  Floating: Floating (float) holds 4 bytes of variable memory. 3.4*10-38 to 3.4*1038 is the range.

  Character: Character (char) holds 1 byte of variable memory. 0 to 255 is the range.

  Double: Double is the modifier of float type. It holds 8 bytes of variable memory. Its range is from 1.7 E-308 to 1.7 E308.

  Void: Void is zero or null that is used when a function does not return any value. Example: void main (), void display ().

  Boolean: Boolean (bool) handles logical data like true (1) or false (0). Its size is 1 byte.


  Array: Array is a homogeneous element that contains a common name for each & every element. There are 3 types of arrays

       One-dimensional array: A one-dimensional array is a group of similar types of data elements having the same name & structure.

       Two-dimensional array: A two-dimensional array is a group of homogeneous elements structured in 2 dimensions with a common name. It is organized in matrices which can be represented as a collection of rows & columns.

       Multi-dimensional array: A multi-dimensional array is an array with more than one element with more or multiple indexes. It is most commonly used in a two-dimensional array, also known as a table or matrix. They are used for storing the data in a tabular manner (consisting of rows & columns).

  Function: A function is known as subprograms; these subprograms are modularized when the programs are complex & lengthy.

  Pointer: A pointer is the memory address of another variable that is stored.

  Reference: A reference is safer than the pointer type inherited from C. It is less powerful.


  Structure: A structure is a collection of logically related data elements of same or different types.

  Union: A union is a collection of different variables of different data types that share the same memory location. As structure variables, it is created in the same manner. In C language, the keyword “union” is used to define unions.

  Class: A class is a template that represents a group of objects which share common properties & relationships. A blueprint for an object makes a class.

  Enumerated: Enumerated is a set of values that consists of integral constants. It provides an easy way to work with sets of related constants.

  Typedef: Typedef (type definition) is a reserved keyword, a way to assign a new name to the pre-existing data type.

 Control statements in C & C++

-   If statement: The if statement is a decision-making statement that checks whether an expression is true or false.

-   If else statement: The if else statement is used to check whether an expression matches with the first statement or the second statement.

-   Nested if statement: The nested if statement is used to nest an unlimited number of if/else statements.

-   If else ladder: The if else ladder is used to check a set of multiple statements that matches with the expression.

-   Switch statement: The switch statement is used to compare all the cases in the expression.

Looping statements in C & C++

-   While loop: The while loop is also known as pre-tested loop. It is used to check the condition that takes place before the execution of statements. As long as the condition is true, the statement is executed. If the condition is false, execution of the statement exits from the loop.

-   Do while loop: The do while loop is also known as post tested loop. It is used to check the condition that takes place after the execution of statements. If the condition is true, then the set of statements are executed. If the condition is false, execution of the statement exits from the loop.

-   For loop: The for loop is a fixed condition loop. It repeats the execution of statements until the condition is true.

What is Data Structure ?

Data Structure Course

Data Structure is an organized collection of data to perform the required operations to generate the desired results.

Data Structure is of 2 types, they are:

Primitive data structures &

Non-primitive data structures


Primitive data structures: Primitive data structures are predefined data structures or fundamental data structures readily available for use. It includes

Integer, Floating, Character, Double, Boolean, etc.

Integer: Integer (int) holds 2 bytes of variable memory. -32768 to 32767 is the range.

Floating: Floating (float) holds 4 bytes of variable memory. 3.4*10-38 to 3.4*1038 is the range.

Character: Character (char) holds 1 byte of variable memory. 0 to 255 is the range.

Double: Double is the modifier of float type. It holds 8 bytes of variable memory. Its range is from 1.7 E-308 to 1.7 E308.

Boolean: Boolean (bool) handles logical data like true (1) or false (0). Its size is 1 byte.

The operations of primitive data structures are

Create, Destroy, Select, Update.

Create: Create is the declaration of variables of different data types.

Destroy: Destroy is when certain memory is occupied when variables are declared. Generally, immediately when the program is executed, the data structure is destroyed automatically.

Select: Select is to display the actual data with the help of the variables as per the requirements.

Update: Update is the process of modifying or changing the data.


Non-primitive data structures: Non-primitive data structures are constructed by using primitive data structures. 2 types of non-primitive data structures are:

Linear data structures &

Non-linear data structures


Linear data structures: Linear data structures are stored in sequential type. There is an adjacent relationship among the sequential elements. It is also called a single-level data structure. The adjacent relationship among the elements is the basic property of linear data structure. The operations that are performed in linear data structures are

Traversing, Insertion, Deletion, Searching, Sorting, &, Merging.

Traversing: Traversing is visiting each element at least once.

Insertion: Insertion is adding a new element into the array at a specified position.

Deletion: Deletion is removing an element from the specified position in the given array.

Searching: Searching is finding the position of an element in an array.

Sorting: Sorting is arranging the array elements in ascending or descending order.

Merging: Merging is combining two or more arrays into a single large array.

It consists of



Queue &

Linked list.

Array: Array is a homogeneous element that contains a common name for each & every element. There are 3 types of arrays

One-dimensional array: A one-dimensional array is a group of similar types of data elements having the same name & structure. The operations that are performed in a one-dimensional array are

Traversing, Insertion, Deletion, Searching, Sorting, &, Merging.

Traversing: Traversing means visiting each element at least once. The process starts from the start location to the last location of the array.

Insertion: Insertion is adding a new element in the array in the specified position.

Deletion: Deletion is removing an element in the array in the specified position.

Searching: Searching is finding the position of an element from the array. There are 2 types of searching techniques, they are:

Linear search: Linear search is the search element that is compared with array elements from beginning to ending.

Binary search: Binary search is the search element that is compared with the middle elements of an array at every step.

Sorting: Sorting is arranging the elements of an array either in ascending order or descending order. Sorting are of many types, such as,

Selection sort: Selection sort is in the unsorted array, where the smallest element is selected & swapped with the leftmost array, & that element becomes a part of the stored array.

Insertion sort: Insertion sort is that builds the final sorted array (or list) one item at a time. It arranges a list of unsorted elements in a particular order at its suitable place.

Heapsort: Heapsort is a comparison-based sorting algorithm. It is similar to selection sort, but, the only difference is that it finds the largest element & places them at the end.

Bucket sort: Bucket sort or also known as bin sort. It separates the unsorted array elements into multiple groups called buckets. Empty buckets are set up at the start of the sort & are filled with the relevant data. Each bucket is then stored, & the data is finally gathered back into a list.

Quicksort: Quicksort is a divide & conquer algorithm. It works by picking up the central element from the array & dividing the other two sub-arrays, according to whether they are less than or greater than the central element.

Merge sort: Merge sort is a divide & conquer algorithm. It works by dividing the input array into two halves, then the sorting & merging of them is done.

Bubble sort: Bubble sort is also known as sinking sort & the simplest sorting algorithm. The working is done repeatedly by swapping the adjacent elements if they are not in the correct order.

Merging: Merging is used to combine the data items of two sorted files into a single file in the sorted form.

Two-dimensional array: A two-dimensional array is a group of homogeneous elements structured in 2 dimensions with a common name. It is organised in matrices which can be represented as a collection of rows & columns.

Multi-dimensional array: A multi-dimensional array is an array with more than one element with more or multiple indexes. It is most commonly used in a two-dimensional array, also known as a table or matrix. They are used for storing the data in a tabular manner (consisting of rows & columns).


Stack: Stack is a linear data structure. It follows the LIFO (Last-In-First-Out) principle. The data elements are added & deleted only from the TOP end. The operations of the stack are

Push, Pop, Peek, IsEmpty, IsFull, Size, Count, Change, Display.

  •            Push: Push adds or inserts a new element at the TOP of the stack.
  •            Pop: Pop removes or deletes an element from the TOP of the stack.
  •          Peek: Peek returns the TOP element, but an element is not removed from the stack.
  •            IsEmpty: IsEmpty checks whether a stack is empty or not.
  •                  IsFull: IsFull checks whether a stack is full or not.
  •            Size: Size returns the number of items in a stack. It returns an integer output.
  •            Count: Count returns the total number of elements available in a stack.
  •            Change: Change modifies the element at the given position.
  •         Display: Display prints all the elements present in the stack.


Queue: Queue is a linear data structure. It follows FIFO (First-In-First-Out) principle. The data elements are inserted from one end known as the REAR end (en queue) & are deleted from the other end known as the FRONT end (de queue). The operations of the queue are

Enqueue, Dequeue, Peek, IsEmpty, IsFull, Size, Initialise.

Enqueue: Enqueue adds an element into a queue from the REAR end.

  • Dequeue: Dequeue removes an element that exists at the FRONT end.
  • Peek: Peek is used to getting the element at the FRONT of the queue without removing it.
  • IsEmpty: IsEmpty checks whether the queue is empty or not. It returns in terms of 0 (NO) or 1 (YES).
  • IsFull: IsFull checks whether the queue is full or not. It returns in terms of 0 (NO) or 1 (YES).
  • Size: Size returns the number of data elements present in a queue.
  • Initialise: Initialise creates an empty queue.

There are 4 types of queues, they are

Simple queue: Simple queue is where the insertion happens at the REAR end & deletion happens at the FRONT end.

Circular queue: Circular queue is the last node of the queue that is connected to the first node of the queue & forms the circular organisations of memory locations.

Priority queue: Priority queue is the data elements that are accepted as per the time of occurrence and insertion & deletion of elements take place according to the priority mentioned in the queue.

Double-ended queue (Dequeue): Double-ended queue (Dequeue) is the insertion & deletion of data elements that can take place at both FRONT & REAR ends of the queue.

Linked list: The Linked list comes under a linear data structure. It has one or more nodes. There are 4 types of linked lists, they are

Singly-linked list: Single-linked list is one way of implementing a list. Each node has an INFO (data) & a LINK (address) of the next node. The last LINK contains NULL.

Doubly linked list: Doubly linked list is a two way of implementing a list. The LINK (address) is added either forward or backward of the node. The last Right LINK contains NULL.

Circular linked list: Circular linked list is a circular way of implementing a list. The last LINK (address) is added to the first INFO (data) of the node. The last LINK doesn’t contain NULL.

Doubly circular linked list: The doubly circular linked list is a circular two-way of implementing a list. The first INFO (data) is added to the last LINK (address) of the node & the last LINK (address) is added to the first INFO (data) of the node. The last LINK doesn’t contain NULL.

The operations of the linked list are

Traversing, Insertion, Deletion, Searching, Sorting, &, Merging.

  •              Traversing: Traversing is to access each node at least once, one after the other.
  •              Insertion: Insertion is to add a node at a given position.
  •              Deletion: Deletion is to remove a node from the existing position.
  •              Searching: Searching is to find or locate the position of a particular node in the list.

Sorting: Sorting is arranging the nodes in ascending or descending order.

Merging: Merging is to combine two or more similar lists & creating one larger list.


Non-linear data structures: Non-linear data structures are data items that are not organised sequentially. All the data elements cannot be traversed in a single run. It requires multiple runs to be traversed. The elements are arranged from lowest to highest or non-linear manner. The data elements are arranged in more than one level.

It consists of

Trees &



Trees: A tree comes under a non-linear data structure. It contains nodes & edges. A node contains the data & an edge connects the two different nodes. It is an acyclic connected graph. There are different terminologies present in a tree, they are

Root: Root is the starting node in a tree.

Parent: Parent is the node from which the child node is derived.

Siblings: Siblings are the nodes from the same parent.

Descendent: Descendent is a node reachable by repeated proceeding from parent to child.

Ancestor: Ancestor is a node reachable by repeated proceeding from child to parent.

Leaf: A leaf with no children is also called a node.

Internal node: Internal node is the node that exists between the root node & leaf node.

External node: External nodes are terminal or end nodes.

Degree: Degree is the maximum number of children for a particular node.

Edge: Edge is a connection between two different nodes.

Path: A path is a sequence of nodes & edges connecting a node.

Level: The Level of a node is defined by 1+ the number of connections between the node & the root.

Height of a tree: The height of a tree is the longest downward path between the root & a leaf, with several edges.

Height of a node: The height of a node is the longest downward path between that node & a leaf, with the number of edges.

Depth of a node: The Depth of a node is from the node to the tree’s root node, with the number of edges.

Subtree: A subtree is a part of a tree.

Forest: Forest is where any two vertices are connected by not more than one path. It is an undirected graph.

The types of trees are

Binary tree: A binary tree is a type of tree in which the parent node can have less than or equal to 2 children, that is 0, 1, 2.

Binary Search Tree (BST): A binary search tree is a subtree of binary trees that is organised in such a way that it allows for faster searching, lookup, & addition/removal of data.

Complete tree: A complete tree is a tree in which each leaf is at the same distance from the root, that is all the nodes have a maximum of 2 subtrees.


Graphs: A graph comes under a non-linear data structure. It is a collection of nodes called vertices & the connections between them are called edges. The types of graphs are

Directed graph: A directed graph is when the edges in a graph have a direction.

Undirected graph: An undirected graph is when the edges in a graph don’t have any direction.


Object-Oriented Programming Language

Object-Oriented Programming Language (OOP’s) is a type of programming technique that views the problem in terms of objects involved rather than procedure for doing it. Few object-oriented programming languages are: C++, C#, Java.


The characteristics or components of object-oriented programming are:



Data abstraction,

Data encapsulation,




Dynamic binding &

Message passing.


Object: An object is a programming model that combines data & functions into a single unit. The member functions are the functions of an object. These member functions are used to access the data of an object.


Class: A class is a template that represents a group of objects which share common properties & relationships. A blueprint for an object makes a class.


Data abstraction: Data abstraction is the process of representing the essential features without including the background details or explanation.


Data encapsulation: Data encapsulation is wrapping or combining the data & functions into a single unit. It will prevent direct access to data. It enables data hiding or information hiding.


Inheritance: Inheritance is the process of generating a new class by extracting the properties from the pre-existing class, where the pre-existing class is called as the base class & the derived class or subclass is a new class. The types of inheritance are:

Single level inheritance: Single level inheritance is if a class is derived from a single base class.

Multi-level inheritance: Multilevel inheritance is the classes that can also be derived from the classes that are already derived.

Multiple inheritance: Multiple inheritance is if a class is derived from more than one base class.

Hierarchical inheritance: Hierarchical inheritance is if a number of classes are derived from a single base class.

Hybrid inheritance: Hybrid inheritance is the combination of hierarchical inheritance & multi-level inheritance.


Overloading: Overloading is depending upon context, that allows objects to have different meaning. There are 2 types of overloading, they are:

Operator overloading: Operator overloading is when an existing operator operates on a new data type.

Function overloading: Function overloading is when two or more functions have the same name, but differ in the number of arguments or data type of arguments.


Polymorphism: Polymorphism is the ability of an operator & function to take more than one form or multiple forms.

Dynamic binding: Dynamic binding is the code associated with a given procedure call that is not known until the time of the call at run time. Late binding is the other name for dynamic binding.


Message passing: Message passing involves specifying the name of the function (message), the name of an object & the information to be sent.


Applications of object-oriented programming language

-   Computer graphic applications,

-   CAD/CAM software,

-   Object-oriented database,

-   Web based applications,

-   Mobile computing,

-   Real-time systems,

-   Simulation & Modelling,

-   Artificial intelligence & expert systems.

Python Course

Python: In the present time Python has nearly taken over all the computing fields, it is very easy to learn. It has simple syntax compared to other programming languages, but it is slow during compilation compared to C++. It is also an interpreted high-level general-purpose Programming language. It is commonly used in developing websites and software, task automation, data analysis & data visualization. It takes 2 to 6 months to learn the fundamentals of Python. But to master Python’s vast array of libraries, takes months or even years.

Web Designing Course

Web Designing: Web Designing is designing the websites that are displayed on the internet. It usually has a focus on the user experience aspects in Website development rather than Software development. The user plans, designs, creates & often maintains Websites. Web Designers work on the appearance, layout, and in some cases of content in a website. The goal of it is to promote accessibility for all potential users through its website or webpage. This process involves organizing images & content across a series of pages, integrating applications and other interactive elements. In the beginning, it might be easy while learning HTML & CSS. But later, the challenge will increase at the upcoming high level. As technology gets updated and advanced it is better to be in pace with all the changes that will happen.


Web Designing Languages to learn:

HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP, SQL, Angular.

 What is HTML ?

HTML: HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is a standard markup language where the documents are designed to be displayed in the web browser. If you are interested in web development, then this is where you can begin your journey. It is mostly based on designing a web page’s structure and content by using the Tags. It is mainly used to provide static web content.

CSS Course

CSS: CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is a style sheet language for describing how the document is presented & written in a markup language such as HTML. At the beginning of a basic level, it is easy to learn. This technology was designed because it could be accessed by everyone, and anyone could create their styled web pages in their way on the internet. If you want to learn advanced CSS, then it will take you more time.

Java Script Course 

JavaScript: JavaScript was originally called Live Script, the Script suffix suggests that it is not a Programming language, that a scripting language is less than a Programming language. It is one of the core technologies of the WWW (World Wide Web), alongside HTML & CSS. Over 97% of the websites use JavaScript on the client-side for web page behaviour, it often includes third-party libraries. It provides an interface for the end-users to interact by generating dynamic content for the users. It runs in the browser. It provides a dynamic environment to handle dynamic events on the web pages.

PHP Course

PHP: PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is a general-purpose Scripting language for web development. Making dynamic & interactive web pages is being used. It is among the first server-side languages where HTML is embedded which makes it easy to add functionality to web pages without the need to call the external files or data. It supports the database and accepts both upper-case and lower-case variables. It does not execute within the browser. PHP & Python both can be used for backend development. But there are going to be cases where one is going to be a way better option than the other.

SQL Course

SQL: SQL (Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language or standardised Programming language that is used for Programming & designing for managing the data that is kept in RDBMS (Relational Database Management System). In general, it is a database that is used to store data. It is also known as SQL databases; relational systems comprise a set of rows and columns that makes a table. Communication with a database is used. SQL statements are used to perform tasks like retrieving data from a database or updating data on a database. According to ANSI (American National Standards Institute), it is a standard language for RDBMS. Speaking in general, SQL is an easy language to learn if you have studied other Programming languages earlier, but if you are new to Programming language then it will take you some time. The designing part for managing data is done in RDBMS.

Angular Js Course

Angular: Angular is a Typescript based, open-source Web application Framework led by a community of individuals and corporations & led by the Angular team at Google. It is a complete rewrite of the same term that built AngularJS. It is used for building single-page client applications by using HTML & TypeScript. It is written in TypeScript. It implements core & optional functionality as a set of TypeScript libraries that you import into your applications. It is considered a Front-end Framework. There are no special features that are present in the backend language. Angular4 is a Front-end Framework that is provided by Goggle, it helps a lot in making the fastest single-page application & it works 100% perfectly. Learning Angular depends on how much basic knowledge you have on JavaScript, so it would be easy to learn.

.Net Technologies Course

.Net: .Net is an open-source, cross-platform, free developer platform used for building many different types of applications. You can use multiple languages, editors & libraries to build Web, Games, Desktop, Mobile & IoT. But it is not a language itself. The developers used it to build Software on .Net Framework that is C# & Visual Basic. Visual Studio is known as Integrated Development Environment (IDE) that provides development productivity tools and debugging capabilities. The development of gaming applications is like a helping way. It helps in the creation of Websites and Web applications. Because of .Net Framework responsiveness and having great performance, Gaming applications are better developed in this and remain longer. It is used by software developers. It is easy to understand, learn & implement. Since C# is a source of C++, which is one of the basic programming languages, parallel to Java, it is easy for Java professionals to learn .Net which is primarily written & engineered in C#.

VB.Net Course

VB.Net: VB.Net (Visual Basic.Net) is also an Object-Oriented Programming language which is also developed by Microsoft. It is implemented on .NET, Mono & the .NET Framework. In the year 2002, Microsoft launched VB.Net. Now the last version is VB 6.0. It is easy to learn. It uses implicit casting and makes it easier to code. It supports structured and unstructured error handling. It is used to create applications that work with Microsoft’s New .Net Framework. It has the same capabilities as C#.

Advanced .Net Course

Advanced .Net: Advanced .Net is the next step for developers who have learned a .Net language & the basic workings of the Common Language Runtime (CLR), & who now want to move to the next level.

ASP.net Course

ASP.Net: ASP (Active Server Page) .Net is an open-source Web Platform, a server-side web application framework designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. Programmers are allowed to build dynamic websites, web applications & web servers that are developed by Microsoft. It is cross-platform & runs on Linux, Windows, macOS & Docker. It is built on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which allows programmers to write ASP.Net code using any supported .Net language. The ASP.Net components to process SOAP messages allow the ASP.Net SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) extension framework.

Java Course

Java: Most of them say that “if you know C & C++ then you can understand Java”. Java also includes Object-oriented Programming. It is a high-level Programming language. It is mostly for backend development projects, like, big data & Android development. It can be considered easy for beginners. It is a cross-platform program. It is commonly used for desktop computing, mobile computing & numerical computing. Yes, but learning Java is not a piece of cake. You can learn Java in 3 months to get good knowledge, although it would take a lot of time to fully master it. 


J2EE (Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition) is a standard platform that is used for developing applications in the enterprise & it is designed for enterprise applications that run on servers. It provides APIs for developers to workflows and makes use of web services & databases. It is used to provide choices for GUI (Graphical User Interface) across a company’s intranet or on the WWW (World Wide Web). It also provides the functionality to develop multi-tiered web-based applications.

Core Java:

Core Java is a part that covers the basic concepts of Java Programming language that is used for creating or developing a general-purpose application. It comes under Java SE & J2SE. It covers core topics such as OOP’s, Inheritance, Polymorphism, Data abstraction, Encapsulation, String handling, Exception handling, Synchronisation, Generics, Collection Framework, Concurrent collection, etc. Core Java is a subset of Java. It is the basic & raw form of java that is used for designing application software for desktops as well as server environments. It is not community-driven. It cannot reduce network usage.

Advanced Java:

Advanced Java is the next level of Core Java. It is also a part of the Java Programming language that generally deals with online applications like the website & mobile applications. It only deals with some specialization like Database, Networking, etc. it has some specific sections like Database connectivity, Web services, etc. it is used for Web-based application & enterprise application development platform which follows client & server architecture. It comes under J2EE. Most importantly the APIs defined in Java Enterprise Edition include servlet Programming, Web Services, the Persistence APIs, etc.

Selenium Course

Selenium: Selenium is a range of tools & libraries that is aimed to support web browser automation. It is an open-source subproject. A playback tool is provided for authoring functional tests without the need to learn a test scripting language (Selenium IDE). It also provides a test domain-specific language (Selenese) to write tests in several popular programming & coding languages such as Ruby, Java, NodeJS, PHP, Perl, C#, Python & Scala. Later on, the tests can run against most modern web browsers. It runs on macOS, Windows, Linux. Released under the Apache Licence 2.0, it is open-source software. It is one of the most widely used open-source Web UI (User Interface) automation testing suites. The components used are:

  Selenium IDE: It is a completely Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for Selenium tests. It is implemented as a Firefox Ad-on & as a Chrome Extension. It allows recording, debugging & editing of functional tests. It was previously known as Selenium Recorder. It was previously little-maintained. In 2018, it began being actively maintained.

  Selenium client API: As an alternative for writing tests in Selenese tests can also be written in programming or coding languages. By calling methods in the Selenium Client API, later on, these tests communicate with Selenium. It currently provides client APIs for Python, Java, C#, Ruby, JavaScript, R, etc.    

  Selenium Remote Control (RC): It is a server written in Java, that accepts commands for the browser via HTTP. RC makes it possible to write automated tests for a web application in any programming or coding language, which allows for better integration of Selenium in existing unit tests frameworks. To make writing tests easier, the Selenium project currently provides client drivers for PHP, Python, .Net, Perl, Java & Ruby. JavaScript (via the Rhino engine) can also be used from the Java Driver. An instance of Selenium RC is needed to launch an Html test case – which means that the port should be different for each parallel run. However, only one Selenium RC instance needs to be running continuously, for Jaca/PHP test case.

  Selenium WebDriver: At the core of Selenium is Selenium WebDriver, an interface to write instructions that work interchangeably across browsers. It is the successor to Selenium RC. It accepts commands sent (sent in Selenese, or via a client API) & sends them to a browser. This is implemented through a browser-specific browser driver, which sends commands to a browser & retrieves the results. Most browser drivers launch & access a browser application (such as Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari, or Microsoft Edge); there is also an HtmlUnit browser driver, which simulates a browser using the headless browser HtmlUnit.   

  Selenium Grid: It is a server that allows tests to use web browser instances running on remote machines.  One server act as the central hub. To obtain access to browser instances, tests contact the hub. The hub has a list of servers that provide access to browser instances (WebDriver nodes), & allows the tests to use these instances. It allows running tests in parallel on multiple machines & to manage different browser versions & browser configurations centrally (instead of in each test).  The ability to run tests on remote browser instances is useful to spread a load of testing across several machines & to run tests in browsers running on different platforms or operating systems.

Software Testing Course

Software Testing: Software Testing is the process that evaluates, verifies, identifies the correctness, completeness & quality of the developed computer software or application. It is used for checking whether the actual software product matches the expected requirements & to ensure that it is defect-free. The benefit of testing includes the removal of bugs, improvement in performance & reduction of development costs. It includes a set of activities performed for finding errors in the software before the product could be released to the end-users. Software QA (Quality Assurance) test training typically takes 6-10 weeks.


Software Testing is of 2 types:

Automation Testing, &

Manual Testing


Automation Testing: Automation Testing is simply automated that focuses on replacing manual human activity with systems or devices that enhance the efficiency of software. It is the process of testing software & other tech products to ensure it meets strict requirements. Essentially it is a test to double-check that the equipment or software does exactly what it was designed to do. It tests for bugs, defects & any other issues that can arise without product development. It uses different types of tools, scripts & software to perform test cases by repeating pre-defined actions. The main advantage is that it can run at any time of the day & it can do the repeated tests again as it also saves a lot of time. It uses a scripted sequence to examine the software. It then reports on what’s been found & this information can be compared with the earlier test runs. Automation developers generally write in the following Coding languages such as C#, JavaScript & Programming languages such as Java, Python. The benefits are that it can give detailed reporting capabilities, improve bug detection, make the tests easier, speeds up the testing process, reduce human intervention & save money, in the long run, to become more cost-effective. Popular user testing Frameworks include JUnit for Java & Pytest for Python. Using automation technology also means testing can be done more frequently, improving overall functionality. Most importantly, automation benefits product development.  


Manual Testing: Manual Testing is the practice of testing an application & bugs. Without any support from tools or scripts, test cases are executed manually by humans. It requires a tester to play a role of an end-user by which they use most of the application’s features to ensure correct behaviour. To generate completeness of testing, the tester often follows a written test plan that leads them through a set of important test cases. In Manual Testing, most bugs are caught & feature issues before the software application goes live, it is a low-cost operation as no software tools are used & judgments and observations are done by humans in a better way than automated tools that give an advantage to it. It ensures whether the application is working or not, as mentioned in the requirement document. A tester checks, demonstrates tests & declares the key features of a software application. Specialised automation tools are not required by Analysts to execute test cases & develop summary error reports. Even application testing happens manually. Comparing the behaviour of a developed piece of code (Software, module, API, feature, etc.) against the expected behaviour (Requirements). “100% Automation is not possible” is one of the fundamentals in Software Testing. This makes it vital for Manual Testing.


Manual testing is of 3 types, they are:

White Box Testing

Black Box Testing &

Grey Box Testing


White Box Testing: White Box Testing has a medium level of details in a set of data. It is done by end-users (called user acceptance testing), testers & developers. It is neither less exhaustive nor more exhaustive. On account of high-level knowledge of the internals, it provides a better quality/depth in test cases. Functional or business domain testing is deeply suited. It has a better variety of inputs and the ability to extract test results from the database for comparison with expected results. It is also called translucent box testing. Due to lengthy code, it takes a long time to design test cases.


Black Box Testing: Black Box Testing has a low level of details in a set of data. It is done by end-users, testers & developers. It is likely to be less exhaustive. As the internals are not known, it is based on requirements, test cases on the functional specifications. Functional or business testing is suited. Validating the outputs for given inputs are involved in this testing. The application is being tested as a black box technique. It is also known as opaque-box testing, closed-box testing, input-output testing, data-driven testing & behavioural testing. Time consumption depends upon the ability of the functional specifications.


Grey Box Testing: Grey Box Testing has a high level of detail in a set of data. It is generally done by testers & developers. It is more exhaustive. It can exercise code with a relevant variety of data. It is used for all. It involves structural testing and enables logic coverage, decisions, etc., within the code. It is also called glass-box testing, clear-box testing, design-based testing, logic-based testing, structural testing & code-based testing. Test cases designing can be done in a short period.


Black Box Testing: Black Box Testing is of 2 types, they are:

Functional Testing &

Non-Functional Testing


Functional Testing: Functional Testing is which ensures the requirements and specifications are properly satisfied by the application. It ensures that the functions and features of the application work properly. The actions & operations of an application are verified. It is based on the requirements of the customers. It helps the behaviour of the application to increase. It is easy to execute manually. It tests what the product does. It is based on the business requirement. It tests whether the actual result is working according to the expected result or not. Example: A login page must show text boxes to enter the username & password.


Non-Functional Testing: Non-Functional Testing is performed to verify the non-functional requirements of the application. The other aspects of how well the application works are examined. It verifies the behaviour of an application. The customers are the expectations that are based on. It helps the performance of the application to get improved. It is hard to execute manually. It describes what the product does. It is based on the performance requirement. It checks the response time, & the speed of the software under specific conditions. Example: Tests if a login page is getting loaded in 5 seconds.


Functional Testing is of 3 types, they are:

Unit Testing

Integration Testing &

System Testing


Unit Testing: Unit Testing is also called component testing. To check whether it is developed correctly or not, it is performed on a standalone module. It is done by developers, but in the practical world, the developers are not sure to test their code or they do not have time to do the unit tests, much of the unit test is done by the testers. Example: Login module for which the typical unit test cases would be, check the response for valid login id & password, check the response for invalid login id & password, check response when the login button is empty & login button is pressed.


Integration Testing: Integration Testing is when individual modules are combined & tested as a group. Complete testing is done when the data is being transferred between the modules. It is carried out by testers. ‘String Testing’ and sometimes ‘Thread Testing’, is also termed as ‘I & T’ (Integration & Testing). A typical software project is coded by different programmers that consist of multiple software modules. It becomes necessary to verify the software modules work in unity. It focuses on checking data communication amongst these modules.


System Testing: System Testing is the testing of a complete & fully integrated software product. The sole purpose is to exercise the full computer-based system which is a series of different tests. For testing the fully integrated applications including external peripherals to check how the components interact with one another & with the system as a whole, the software code is involved. This is also called end-to-end scenario testing. Verifying through testing every input in the application to check the desired output. The user’s experience with the application is tested.   


Integration Testing is of 2 types, they are:

Incremental Testing &

Non-Incremental Testing


Incremental Testing: Incremental Testing is one of the approaches of integration testing & incorporates its fundamental concepts. It is like a test that combines module & integration testing strategies. It uses several stubs & drivers to test the modules one by one. This helps us in discovering any errors & defects in our modules. It is commonly used in the software field during the testing phase of integration testing which is performed after unit testing. The most important quality of it is that the defects are found early in a smaller assembly when it is relatively easy to detect the root cause of the same.


Non-Incremental Testing: Non-Incremental Testing is also known as big bang testing. It is executed whenever the relationship between the modules is not clear. Such as when data is created in one module & is combined with all the other modules to check as well as test the flow of data between them. Integration testing is used when most of the developed modules are coupled together to form a complete software system or a major part of the system. For saving time in the integration testing process, this method is very effective. However, if the test cases are not properly recorded, the entire integration process will be more complicated & may prevent the testing team from getting their desired goals or results of integration testing.


Incremental Testing is of 2 types, they are:

Top-Down &



Top-Down: Top-Down is the modules that are tested from top to bottom. At first, the higher-level modules are tested then the lower-level modules are tested & then the modules are integrated accordingly. It is beneficial if a significant defect occurs towards the top of the program. At the first, the main module is designed, then the submodules/subroutines are called from it. It is implemented in structure/procedure-oriented programming languages. The complexity of it is simple. It works on larger to smaller components.


Bottom-Up: Bottom-Up is the modules that are tested from bottom to top. At first, the lower-level modules are tested then the higher-level modules are tested & then the modules are integrated accordingly. It is beneficial if the crucial flaws are encountered towards the bottom of the program. The different modules are created first then these modules are integrated with the main function. It is implemented in object-oriented programming languages. The complexity of it is complex & highly data intensive. It works on smaller to larger components.


Non- Functional Testing is of 3 types, they are:

Performance Testing

Usability Testing &

Compatibility Testing


Performance Testing: Performance Testing is that ensures software applications perform properly under their expected workload. It is carried out to determine system performance in terms of sensitivity, reactivity & stability under a particular workload. It is the process of the quality & capability of a product being analysed. It is performed to determine the system performance in terms of speed, reliability & stability under varying workloads. It is also known as perf testing. The objective of it is to make software rapid, stable & reliable. Before the product is launched in the market, it uncovers what is needed to be uncovered.


Usability Testing: Usability Testing is done from an end-user’s perspective to determine if the system is easily usable. Software applications are being used to expose usability defects to target a small set of end-users. It mainly focuses on users’ ease of using applications, the flexibility of application to handle controls & the ability of an application to meet its objectives. It has some benefits & the main benefits and purpose of it are to identify usability problems with a design as early as possible, so they can be fixed before the design is implemented. It is often conducted on prototypes rather than in finished products. The phases of it are: prepare a product or design to test, find participants, write a test plan, take on the role of moderator & present your findings.


Compatibility Testing: Compatibility Testing is performed on an application to check its compatibility (running capability) on different platforms/environments. It is done only when the application becomes stable. In simple terms, it aims to check the developed software application functionality on different software, hardware platforms, network, browser, mobile devices, operating systems, etc. this is very important in product production & implementation point of view as it is performed to avoid future issues regarding compatibility. It is necessary because it ensures complete customer satisfaction, provides service across multiple platforms, identifies bugs during the development process.


Performance Testing is of 4 types, they are:

Load Testing

Stress Testing

Scalability Testing &

Stability Testing


Load Testing: Load Testing is that determines the performance of a system, software products, or software application under real life-based load conditions. It determines the behaviour of the application when multiple users use it at the same time. The response of the system is measured under varying load conditions. It is carried out for normal & extreme load conditions. The objectives of it are: to maximise the operating capacity of a software application, to determine whether the latest infrastructure is capable to run the software application or not, to determine the maintenance of an application concerning extreme user load, to find out the total count of users that can access the application at the same time, to determine the scalability of the application, to allow more users to access the application.


Stress Testing: Stress Testing is that verifies the stability & reliability of software applications. The goal of it is measuring software on its robustness & error handling capabilities under extremely heavy load conditions & ensuring that the software does not crash under crunch situations. It tests beyond normal operating points & evaluates how the software works under extreme conditions. It concentrates on finding defects related to data locking & blocking, network issues & performance that slow down progress in an application. The most important use of it is to determine the limit, to which the systems or software, or hardware break. Under extreme conditions, it also checks whether the system demonstrates effective error management. It is also known as torture testing or endurance testing.


Scalability Testing: Scalability Testing is that measures the performance of a system or network when the number of user requests is scaled up or down. The purpose is to ensure that the system can handle projected increases in user traffic, data volume, transaction counts frequency, etc. it tests the system’s ability to meet the growing needs. The objectives of it are: to control how the application balances with an increasing workload & at what point the software product or the system stops scaling & identify the reason behind it. It is needed to signify the user limit for the software product. To find out the client-side degradation, end-user involvement under load & server-side stability. The usages will make sure the ability of software to scale up with the increasing workload and data traffic.


Stability Testing: Stability Testing is defined as the ability of the product to continue to function over time without failure. It is to check the quality & behaviour of the software in different environmental parameters. It is done to check the efficiency of a developed product beyond normal operational capacity which is known as a breakpoint. It has high significance in error handling, software reliability, robustness & scalability of a product under heavy load rather than checking the system behaviour under normal circumstances. It has stability problems. It is majorly intended to check whether the application will crash at any point in time or not. The objectives of it are: to ensure the system can handle big programs or not, to operate the effectiveness of the system or software application, to check the stability of the system under stress, to yield confidence in the stability of the system or software application under test.


It depends upon the person, if he/she is from a computer or non computer based background. For a non computer based background, it might take more time to pick up compared to a computer based background. Another advantage that a computer based background might get is if that person has a few basic knowledge on programming, scripting and designing. 


For students who have studied 1 or 2 programming languages mostly that include(Java & C++) in their school or college, it will be easy for them to learn & understand other upcoming programming languages. HTML for web page designing, to become a Web Designer or a Web Developer and SQL for database (that stores data), to become a DBA (DataBase Administrator) based on an individual interest.


If you're looking for a job, select a domain in which you are good at such as, web developer, web designer, game developer, embedded systems, DBMS, software testing etc. Now in the present time Python is being used everywhere and has nearly taken over the companies and other industries. These kinds of changes will keep on happening as time keeps on changing.

MVC Course

What is MVC ?

MVC (Model-View-Controller) is a software design pattern commonly used for developing user interfaces that divide the related program logic into three interconnected elements they are (Model, View, Controller). The model handles data logic, View displays the information from the model to the user, Controller controls the data flow into a model object & updates the view whenever the data changes. This is done to separate internal representations of information from the ways the information is presented to & accepted by the user. It emphasizes the separation between the software’s business logic & display. This “separation of concerns” provides for a better division of labor & improved maintenance. The benefits of it are easily modifiable, faster development process, easy planning & maintenance, returns data without formatting, supports TTD (test-driven development), multiple views, SEO-friendly platform.


What id MySQL?

MySQL is a free & open-source Relational Database Management System. Many database-driven web applications including WordPress, Drupal, & Joomla is being used. It is used by many popular websites including Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, YouTube. It is written in C & C++. It is used for adding, accessing & processing data stored in a computer database, for which a database management system such as MySQL server, can handle large databases & reliably & quickly in high-demanding production environments. Specific operations on the database are performed with MySQL that uses SQL. This application is used for a wide range of purposes, that includes data warehousing, e-commerce, & logging applications. The most common use of MySQL, however, is the purpose of a web database.   


What is jQuery?

jQuery is a fast, small & full-featured JavaScript library, which is designed to simplify HTML DOM (Document Object Model) tree traversal & manipulation, as well as event handling, CSS animation & Ajax in a much simple manner with an easy-to-use API (Application Programming Interface) that works across a multitude of browsers. The combination of adapting & designing to add new functions has changed the way that millions of people write JavaScript. It is free, open-source software that uses the permission of MIT License. In May 2019, 73% of jQuery is used by 10 million most popular websites. It is a framework built with JavaScript. It is helpful for web developers to add extra functionalities to their websites. All the code that is written in jQuery is converted to JavaScript internally. It also means that one line of code that is written in jQuery may be equal to multiple lines of code written in JavaScript which means programmers will have to write only lesser lines of code. For developers to create plug-ins on top of the JavaScript library, the capabilities are provided.


What is Bootstrap?

Bootstrap is a free & open-source CSS framework directed at responsive, mobile-first front-end web development. It is containing CSS & optionally JavaScript-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, navigation & other interface components. It is an HTML, CSS & JavaScript library that focuses on simplifying the development of informative web pages (as opposed to web apps). It also comes with several JavaScript components in the form of jQuery plugins. The layout components affect an entire web page as it is the most important component of Bootstrap. It is responsive by design, it maintains wide browser compatibility, it offers consistent design by using reusable components, it is very easy to use & quick to learn, Web Designers & Web Developers like it because it is flexible & easy to work with. Millions of developers use it. It is used by 40,000+ companies. Many big websites like Twitter, Micromax, etc.


Is there a difference between HTML and HTML5?

HTML5 is a markup language that is used for structuring & presenting content on the WWW. The HTML Living Standard is the present specification. It is maintained by the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG), an association of major browser vendors (Apple, Google, Microsoft & Mozilla). It was released in a public-facing form on January 22, 2008, with a major update on World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation “W3C Recommendation” status in October 2014. Its goal was to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia & other new features; to keep the language both easily readable by humans & consistently understood by computers & devices such as web browsers, parsers, etc., without XHTML’s rigidity, & to remain backward compatible with older software. It is more mobile-friendly. It supports audio & video controls with the use of <audio> & <video> tags. It allows in drawing shapes like circles, rectangles, triangles, etc. character encoding is simple & easy.

Adobe Dreamweaver

What id Adobe Dreamweaver?

Adobe Dreamweaver is a proprietary web development tool from Adobe Systems Incorporated. It is not open-source software. The creation was done by Macromedia in the year 1997 & was developed by them until it was acquired by Adobe Systems in the year 2005. It is available for macOS & Windows Operating Systems. Recent versions have improved support for Web technologies such as CSS, JavaScript & various server-side scripting languages & Frameworks including ASP (ASP .NET C#, ASP VBScript, ASP .NET VB, ASP JavaScript) ColdFusion, & PHP. Adobe Dreamweaver CC (Creative Cloud) is a web design & and Integrated Development Environment (IDE) application that is used to develop & design websites. It is used by beginners to be advanced professionals.

Adobe Flash Player

What is Adobe Flash Player?

Adobe Flash Player is content created on the Adobe Flash Platform. It is computer software. Flash Player is capable of viewing multimedia content, executing rich Internet applications, streaming audio & video. In addition, it can run from a web browser as a browser plug-in or on supported mobile devices. It is written in ActionScript & C++. It runs SWF files that can be created by Adobe Flash Professionals, Adobe Flash Builder, or third-party tools such as Flash Develop. It once had a large user base & was a common format for web games, animations & GUI elements embedded in web pages. However, the most popular Flash among the age group of 10-20 was Flash games. Vector graphics, 3d graphics, embedded audio, video & raster graphics (it represents 2d images), & a scripting language which is a support, called ActionScript. ActionScript is an object-oriented Programming language. It is based on ECMAScript (like JavaScript) & supports object-oriented code.


1 ) what is summer camp?

Summer camp is a activity for kids during summer holidays, It is a great way for kids to have fun and make new friends and learning new things
It can build their confidence and independence.

2) Importance of summer camp?

During school academic year kids tight schedule attending the classes for almost whole day, not much time for extra curricular activites.
summer camp is the best way for the kids to play freely without any time being.
It can increase the concentration of kids ,make new friends during summer camp and the skills in which they are interested and improve self confidence .
enables your kids to be free minded.

3 ) what are the activities held in this summer camp?

Cartoon Characters.

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